Attainment, Progress and Relative Attainment KS4

This page contains maps which use publicly available local authority and school level data of pupils who use English as an Additional Language (EAL) at Key Stage 4 showing:

  • KS4 Attainment 8 and Progress 8.
  • KS4 Relative Attainment.

The maps below show Attainment 8 and Progress 8 data for pupils who use EAL by local authority area.

Attainment 8

“Attainment 8 is a way of measuring how well children do in key stage 4, which they usually finish when they are 16 years old.

The 8 subjects which make up Attainment 8 include English and maths. Out of the remaining 6 subjects:
• 3 must come from qualifications that count towards the English Baccalaureate (EBacc), like sciences, a language and history
• 3 qualifications can be either GCSE qualifications (including EBacc subjects) or technical awards from a list approved by the Department for Education

Each grade a pupil achieves is assigned a point score from 9 (the highest) to 1 (the lowest).

A pupil’s Attainment 8 score is calculated by adding up the points for their 8 subjects, with English and maths counted twice. A school's Attainment 8 score is the average of all of its eligible pupils’ scores”. (DfE)

Progress 8

“A Progress 8 score is calculated for each pupil by comparing their Attainment 8 score with the average Attainment 8 scores of all pupils nationally who had a similar starting point, using assessment results from the end of primary school. The greater the Progress 8 score, the greater the progress made by the pupil compared to the average for pupils with similar prior attainment. A school’s Progress 8 score is calculated as the average of its pupils’ Progress 8 scores. It gives an indication of whether, as a group, pupils in the school made above or below average progress compared to similar pupils in other schools.
• A score of zero means pupils in this school on average do as well at key stage 4 as other pupils across England who got similar results at the end of key stage 2
• A score above zero means pupils made more progress, on average, than pupils across England who got similar results at the end of key stage 2
• A score below zero means pupils made less progress, on average, than pupils across England who got similar results at the end of key stage 2” (DfE)

Attainment 8 and Progress 8

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Below are maps showing the 10% of local authorities and schools with the highest attaining pupils who use EAL at KS4 (top decile) and the 10% of local authorities and schools who have the lowest attaining EAL pupils at KS4 (bottom decile). Higher KS4 attainment, like KS2 is associated with London and the South East. Lower KS4 attainment is centred on West Yorkshire and Greater Manchester.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Below are heat maps showing the top 10% (top decile) and bottom 10% (bottom decile) performing schools and local authorities in Progress 8 measures for pupils who use EAL. The heat maps show no discernible patterns in progress between bottom and top deciles for KS4 progress. Local authority analysis shows clusters of lower progress in East London, Birmingham and Sandwell, and parts of Greater Manchester and West Yorkshire.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Relative Attainment KS4

Relative attainment is the attainment of pupils who use EAL divided by the average attainment for all groups. At KS4 the measure is the Progress 8 score. The maps below are heat maps built using school level data. The maps show the bottom 10% performing schools (bottom decile) and the top 10% performing schools (top decile). In KS4, as with KS2 there is a concentration of higher attaining EAL pupils in London, however, in KS4 there are also significant clusters of high attainment in Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Leicester.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Attainment, Progress and Relative Attainment KS2

This page contains maps which use publicly available local authority and school level data of pupils who use English as an Additional Language (EAL) at Key Stage 2 showing:

KS2 Attainment

The map below shows the proportion of pupils who use EAL who are reaching the expected standard in reading, writing and maths at KS2. The range is from 52% to 82% by local authority.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Below are maps built using school level data. The maps show the bottom 10% performing schools (bottom decile) and the top 10% performing schools (top decile). The heat maps show a general urban rural split, with higher attaining schools tending to be focused on London and other centres of population, while lower performing schools are more rural in characteristic – being more distributed across the country. There are particular pockets of lower attaining schools in West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire and Greater Manchester.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

KS2 Progress

The map below shows the progress of pupils who use EAL in reading, writing and maths between KS1 to KS2 (compared to the national average of pupils with similar KS1 attainment profiles) by local authority.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

The maps below show the bottom 10% (bottom decile) of local authorities for progress for pupils who use EAL. There is no consistent geographic pattern across the three progress measures (reading, writing and maths). For reading, the lower progressing schools are located in North Lincolnshire, Merseyside and East Anglia. For writing, the pattern changes with less progress in writing in the West Midlands, East Midlands, Buckinghamshire, Windsor and Maidenhead, and Lewisham. For maths there are pockets of lower progress in Peterborough and Rutland, Dorset and Bath and Worcestershire.

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Below are heat maps built using school level data. The maps show the bottom 10% performing schools (bottom decile).

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

KS2 Relative Attainment

Relative attainment is the attainment of pupils who use EAL divided by the average attainment for all groups at the school or local authority level. At KS2 the measure is the proportion of pupils achieving the expected standard in reading, writing and, maths. Below are heat maps built using school level data. The maps show the bottom 10% performing schools (bottom decile) and the top 10% performing schools (top decile).

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Relative attainment heat maps for KS2, show that attainment for pupils who use EAL is relatively worse for schools in Merseyside, Manchester, Sandwell, Wolverhampton, Dudley, and West and South Yorkshire (Sheffield in particular). Meanwhile, EAL pupils have higher attainment relative to all pupils in London.

EAL Learner Proficiency, Attainment and Progress Maps

The Bell Foundation commissioned Cloud Chamber to produce a series of maps to illustrate the factors which academy trust leaders, Teaching Hubs, and other organisations interested in supporting pupils who use English as an Additional Language (EAL) should consider when planning EAL support in their area, including for education recovery. Although it is important that every child needing to develop their English language skills gets the support they need, regardless of whether they are the only pupil who uses EAL in their school, or one of many, or whether they live in an area of high achievement or not, it can be useful to use school and local authority level data for strategic planning. For further details on how the maps can be used for strategic planning please see the blog on the maps.

The maps show:

  • The proportion of pupils who use EAL in a local authority who are in the early acquisition stages of developing English and are therefore at risk of underachievement.
  • The proportions of pupils within a local authority who use EAL.
  • The proportion of children affected by income deprivation within a local authority, which is a factor associated with underachievement for all children.
  • The achievement data at school and local authority level of pupils who use EAL, including KS2 attainment, KS4 attainment, the attainment of EAL pupils. compared to their English-speaking peers (relative attainment) and the progress of EAL pupils calculated at KS2 and KS4.

These maps use publicly available data, collected 2018-2020, prior to the pandemic which may mean that in certain areas the maps underestimate need, particularly in areas where the impact of Covid-19 may have been greater. Research published by the DfE and The Bell Foundation has indicated that pupils who use EAL were amongst those whose learning was most impacted by the pandemic.

The maps on this page show the contextual, local authority data relating to pupils who use EAL, and the composite indicator maps for KS2 and KS4. This includes maps:

  • The English proficiency of pupils by local authority level (EAL proficiency).
  • The proportion of pupils who use EAL by local authority (% EAL).
  • The IDACI level by local authority (Income deprivation).
  • A composite map identifying areas of need for KS2.
  • A composite map identifying areas of need for KS4.

Contextual maps

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

EAL proficiency:

Areas of red on the EAL proficiency map indicate local authority areas with low average proficiency in English amongst pupils who use EAL. As proficiency in English is central to understanding educational achievement, areas identified as having higher rates of low proficiency will need to plan for additional language support for more of their EAL pupils (Strand and Hessel, 2018). Portsmouth has the greatest proportion of pupils who use EAL in the early acquisition stages of developing English (66%), with 34% having reached competency. Other areas with higher proportions of EAL pupils needing support include Oldham (59%), Peterborough (58%), Salford (57%), and Norfolk (56%).

It is important to note that this map uses 2018 data, when assessment of EAL proficiency was statutory and therefore is only indicative of where there may be areas of low proficiency in 2021. Ideally, schools should annually assess the proficiency in English of all EAL pupils to identify pupils in need of additional language support and to help plan education recovery.

% EAL:

This map shows the proportion of pupils who use EAL by local authority. The range by local authority is from 1% of pupils using EAL within a local authority area, to 75% of pupils using EAL within a local authority area. The areas with the highest proportion of EAL learners includes Tower Hamlets (75%), Newham (73%), Brent (71%), Redbridge (67%) and Westminster (66%). Areas of high proportions of EAL pupils does not necessarily indicate areas which will need additional language support, as some areas may have high numbers of pupils who are competent or fluent in English. However, using this map alongside the map on proficiency or preferably, alongside data collected by schools on the proficiency in English of pupils in the most recent school year, will help leaders understand where there may be a greater demand for targeted recovery for EAL pupils or general EAL support within their region.

Income deprivation:

This map illustrates the percentage of pupils living in IDACI deciles 1 to 5 (the most deprived neighbourhoods). The majority of all local authorities in England have 50% or more children living in deprived neighbourhoods as indicated by red on the map. The areas with the highest rates of income deprivation affecting children include Barking and Dagenham (99%), Newham (99%), Tower Hamlets (98%), Islington (97%) and Hackney (97%).

Composite maps

  • To find out the name of a local authority and the data for that area please hover the mouse on the region.
  • To zoom in on areas such as those with clusters of smaller local authorities please use the zoom buttons (+/-) on the top left of the map.
  • To navigate left, right, up or down please use the navigation buttons on the top left of the map, or click, hold and move the cursor.

Key Stage 2:

For KS2 the areas of greatest need, as identified using the composite indicator include a band across the North from Sefton to North Lincolnshire. Areas of greatest need include Oldham, Peterborough, Bournemouth, Leeds and Manchester.

Key Stage 4:

For KS4 the areas of greatest need, as identified using the composite indicator include a band across the North from Blackpool to North East Lincolnshire. Areas of greatest need include Peterborough, Oldham, Bradford, Sheffield and Haringey.

Peterborough and Oldham were the bottom two achieving local authorities using the composite measure for both KS2 and KS4.

EAL learners have experienced language loss in addition to learning loss during school closures, teacher survey finds

Download the report on language and learning loss “We have observed a significant and tangible loss in learning in the majority of our pupils where English is an additional language.” Senior leader, primary school, South East A new report¹ ‘Language and learning loss: The evidence on children who use English as an Additional Language’ has … Continued